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合肥新航道 > 原创文章 > 雅思阅读—你咋就不能读快点?

雅思阅读—你咋就不能读快点?

来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2018-10-11 16:50

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你是否总是觉得自己的阅读速度慢,时间不够用?

问题读完记不住,文章看完就忘了意思,需要反复看好几遍?

对答案的时候发现,其实自己在不重要的信息处精读了钻研了很久,浪费了宝贵的时间?
 
那么,这篇文章很可能是你不怎么苦口的良药!

(如果,同学,你阅读慢的主要原因是因为词汇,也就是答案句子中,太多考点词你不认识。那请默默的回去巩固好词汇基础。然后再来看这篇文章。)

 

接下来我们就进入正题:

例一:

Most managers can identify the major trends of the day. But in the course of conducting research in a number of industries and working directly with companies, we have discovered that managers often fail to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers' aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors. This is especially true of trends that managers view as peripheral to their core markets. 

请仔细阅读以上段落,然后用尽可能简短的话进行总结归纳。归纳完再往下看。

 

此时,你脑海中对这段信息的过滤是否简化成如下情况:
Most managers can identify the major trends of the day. But in the course of conducting research in a number of industries and working directly with companies, we have discovered that managers often fail to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers' aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors. This is especially true of trends that managers view as peripheral to their core markets.

 

此时完成了第一步简化信息,挑出了重点。

接下来的第二步,准确理解意思。这个时候要注意语法,不然有些时候就会容易造成理解偏差,不知不觉就做错了题。这句话的翻译为:“多数经理能够识别现今的主要趋势。但是,我们发现,经理们通常不能够识别的是趋势正在以不那么显眼但却深远的方式影响消费者渴望,态度和行为”。

多数同学记不住内容,需要反复看的原因,就是因为进行到这里,就停止了,脑海中是长篇幅,意思并不确切的句子。对于多数基础较好的学生,完成前两步,难度不太,但阅读速度提不快的原因就是差了第三步。

第三步:信息内化。把信息内化吸收成言简意赅能理解的意思。不是逐字翻译,不是语法上的一一对应,而是把它变成通顺的,表达出了含义或观点的信息。那么上述内容就转化成了,“多数经理能识别主要趋势,但不能认出趋势对消费者带来的影响”。这样,信息点明晰,且容易记忆。


那我们的最终成果就是把一长段信息内化成了一小段话:
“Most managers can identify the major trends of the day. But in the course of conducting research in a number of industries and working directly with companies, we have discovered that managers often fail to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers' aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors. This is especially true of trends that managers view as   peripheral to their core markets.”


“多数经理能识别主要趋势,
但不能认出趋势对消费者带来的影响”


我们的三个步骤,分别要求的是哪些能力呢?
第一步,识别主要信息的能力。可以利用逻辑信号词(therefore;but;further),强调词(importantly),表述观点类词汇(…argue that;…demonstrate that)找到重点信息。通常文章出题点都在这些重点句子上。
 
第二步,长难句理解准确。常用语法:分词结构;各种从句的识别;插入语;等等,其实都是为了能挑出句子主干。对于阅读理解来讲,可以说不出这那的是什么语法情况,但只要能挑出句子主干就可以很好的理解到核心内容。比如说“ what is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate - a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli - were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favorite moments in the music.”

这句话一看过来就是很多生词,句子很长。但简化后,有用信息的句子主干其实就是标红的:“ what is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate - a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli - were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favorite moments in the music.”内化后的意思为:“多巴胺神经元在参与者最喜欢的时刻到来前的15秒钟是最活跃的。”  这段话会引起注意的第一个原因是有强调词的出现,即“rather more significant”。简化到只剩红色部分的原因是,我们要了解的就是惊人的发现的内容是什么,所以先省略掉了主语从句“what is rather more significant is the finding that”。其次,省略掉了状语“in the caudate”。再来,省略掉了状语中解释说明的部分,它与主干想表达的观点无关。“- a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli -”。

第三步:内化信息。要求好的理解能力,和阅读量的累积有关。这也是最不容易的部分。能不能理解好一些学术内容,理解了,简化起来才容易。有些实在不理解的,可以根据问题反推。

我们再来看个例子:

Why does music make us feel? On the one hand, music is a purely abstract art form, devoid of language or explicit ideas. And yet, even though music says little, it still manages to touch us deeply. When listening to our favorite songs, our body betrays all the symptoms of emotional arousal. The pupils in our eyes dilate, our pulse and blood pressure rise, the electrical conductance of our skin is lowered, and the cerebellum, a brain region associated with bodily movement, becomes strangely active. Blood is even re-directed to the muscles in our legs. In other words, sound stirs us at our biological roots.

 

按照三步走的流程:

第一步,摘出重要信息。利用信号词“yet, even though”,转折,让步。了解到转折后到才应该是重点信息。利用信号词“In other words”,总结归纳,了解到,该句话后面应该是重点。所以重点信息句子就简化成了“And yet, even though music says little, it still manages to touch us deeply.”和“In other words, sound stirs us at our biological roots.”

第二步,理解准确。“然而,尽管音乐讲的不多,它依然成功的深深的触动了我们。”和“换言之,音乐搅动了我们的生物根基。”

第三步,内化信息。这两句话的意思差别不大。综合为:音乐深深的触动了我们的生理。

 

所以我们又成功的将一大段话
“Why does music make us feel? On the one hand, music is a purely abstract art form, devoid of language or explicit ideas. And yet, even though music says little, it still manages to touch us deeply. When listening to our favorite songs, our body betrays all the symptoms of emotional arousal. The pupils in our eyes dilate, our pulse and blood pressure rise, the electrical conductance of our skin is lowered, and the cerebellum, a brain region associated with bodily movement, becomes strangely active. Blood is even re-directed to the muscles in our legs. In other words, sound stirs us at our biological roots.”
缩短为了“音乐深深的触动了我们的生理。”

 

这样子简化信息可以有什么应用呢?
最明显的是:理解主旨。可以应用在 list of headings题型,和部分询问主要大意的选择题上。
其次。多数细节题的出题点也会在这类重点句子上。所以,它也可以解决很多细节题。
再来,加快整篇文章的重点理解,逻辑衔接。减少重复阅读,减少干扰性的,非重点信息的阅读。即,加快阅读速度。

而刚好,举例的这两个段落分别出自于剑雅13T2P3和剑雅12T7P3。有对应的问题出现。同学们看能不能做对题目吧!

例一的段落内容是:
Most managers can identify the major trends of the day. But in the course of conducting research in a number of industries and working directly with companies, we have discovered that managers often fail to recognize the less obvious but profound ways these trends are influencing consumers' aspirations, attitudes, and behaviors. This is especially true of trends that managers view as peripheral to their core markets.

对于例一的题目:
In this paragraph, the writer says that most managers______
A fail to spot the key consumer trends of the moment.
B make the mistake of focusing only on the principal consumer trends.
C misinterpret market research data relating to current consumer trends.
D are unaware of the significant impact that trends have on consumers’ lives.
 
 
例二的文章是:
Why does music make us feel? On the one hand, music is a purely abstract art form, devoid of language or explicit ideas. And yet, even though music says little, it still manages to touch us deeply. When listening to our favorite songs, our body betrays all the symptoms of emotional arousal. The pupils in our eyes dilate, our pulse and blood pressure rise, the electrical conductance of our skin is lowered, and the cerebellum, a brain region associated with bodily movement, becomes strangely active. Blood is even re-directed to the muscles in our legs. In other words, sound stirs us at our biological roots.

对于例二的题目:
What point does the writer emphasize in this paragraph?
A how dramatically our reactions to music can vary
B how intense our physical responses to music can be
C how little we know about the way that music affects us
D how much music can tell us about how our brains operate
 
 
另外,在讲解长难句理解时,举例子的那句话,也有两个题目出现。
 
我们的长难句是:
what is rather more significant is the finding that the dopamine neurons in the caudate - a region of the brain involved in learning stimulus-response associations, and in anticipating food and other ‘reward’ stimuli - were at their most active around 15 seconds before the participants’ favorite moments in the music.”
 
题目是:
What does the writer find interesting about the results of the study?
A the timing of participants’ neural responses to the music
B the impact of the music on participants’ emotional state
C the section of participants’ brains which was activated by the music
D the type of music which had the strongest effect on participants’ brains

题目二是:
The researchers discovered that_______.
A our response to music depends on our initial emotional state.
B neuron activity decreases if outcomes become predictable.
C emotive music can bring to mind actual pictures and events.
D experiences in our past can influence our emotional reaction to music.
E emotive music delays giving listeners what they expect to hear.
F neuron activity increases prior to key points in a musical piece.
 
揭晓答案:
按出题顺序:DBAF
 
Ps:另外,对于例一的题目,接触过的同学,有很多,之前在选择答案时,会选择B  make the mistake of focusing only on the principal consumer trends.。因为他们觉得这个选项,和文章中的最后一句话,意思相似。This is especially true of trends that managers view as peripheral to their core markets. 这其实就是典型的错误干扰信息。按照我们选择主次信息的方法,这句话,根本就不会被给予精读或者给予过多重视,因为它不是主要信息。这点就是文章一开头提到的,阅读慢和做错题的原因,因为选项的误导将精力放在了不重要的信息上。其次,这个选项其实和原文表达的意思也不相符。选项强调的是only。错误的只关注了主要趋势。而原文表达的是,忽略了趋势带来的影响。这样的错误,推而广之,其实是很多同学在做题时会出现的情况。一定要避免。
 
此外,在使用文章中推荐的方法时,有些同学可能会有疑问。要是能挑选出主要信息,那不是还是要把整段都看了,才知道哪些重要,还不是花了很多时间?

这其实就涉及到了略读和精读的问题。在看整段时,我们是略读文章,了解大意,但在确定好关键信息后,才会进行精读。所以给予的注意力和时间分配是不一样的。如果是通篇精读,没必要,且时间不够。如果通篇略读,细节理解不到位,做题非常容易出错。所以才要有所选择的精读。

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